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Common Name:

European Beech

Scientific Name:

Fagus sylvatica

Family Name:



European Beech is the old world counterpart to the American Beech and is very similar in most respects. A wider range of cultivars, including those with bronze or cutleaf foliage or weeping or contorted growth habits.

Plant Habit or Use:

Medium tree, large tree


sun, partial sun, shade

Flower Color:

Green, monoecious, females inconspicuous, males in catkins

Blooming Period:


Fruit Characteristics:

Beechnuts encased in a spiny 4-valved dehiscent bur


50 ft to 60 ft (taller in native lands)


40 ft to 60 ft

Earth–Kind® Index:

  • Heat Tolerance: Low Heat Tolerance
  • Water Requirements: Medium Water Use
  • Soil Requirements: Low Soil Requirements
  • Pest Tolerance: Medium Pest Resistance
  • Fertility Requirements: Low Fertility Requirements
Explanation of the Earth–Kind® Index breakdown

Firewise Index

Explanation of the Firewise Index numerical value

USDA Hardiness Zones:

4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Regions that intersect these hardiness zones:
Region A - Panhandle and High Plains Region B - North and Central Texas Region C - Northeast and East Texas Region D - West Texas Region E - Upper Rio Grande Region F - Hill Country and Central Coast Region G - Southeast Texas
Click image for enlarged map of USDA Hardiness Zones

Additional Comments:

Generally more tolerant of high pH soils than most ecotypes of American Beech, but not heat tolerant. Usefull only in the extreme Northeastern portions of our region.
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A Special Note about Cool Season Annuals

Cool season annuals typically are planted in the fall or early winter and flower in early spring under moderate temperatures. This group of plant materials includes: pansies, snapdragons, violas, dianthus, flowering cabbage/kale, etc. Because cool season annuals flower in the spring when conditions are mild, most have limited heat tolerance.

As a result cool season annuals do not receive a high Earth–Kind® index despite their outstanding landscape qualities.