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Common Name:


Scientific Name:

Verbena spp.

Family Name:



The most widely known cultivars are a rather non-durable transition season annual (mostly Verbena x hybrida). The perennial Verbena spp. and cultivars offer a more reliable source of color for Texas landscapes. Several perennial species are suitable for use as short-term groundcovers. 'Homestead Purple', 'Blue Princess', 'Pinwheel Princess', 'Apple Blossom', and Taylortown Red' are good larger growing cultivars. The Tapien series make excellent low mat-like forms with purple, blue, pink, or white flowers.

Plant Habit or Use:

Transition season annual, perennial, groundcover


sun, partial sun

Flower Color:

Wide range of colors are available on the annual species, perennial species mostly white, pink, blue, purple, or red

Blooming Period:

Spring, summer, fall

Fruit Characteristics:

Cyme of tiny nutlets, not ornamental


2 inch mat to 18 inch mound


1 ft to 5 ft, some spreading indefinitely as they root from vine-like stems

Earth–Kind® Index:

  • Heat Tolerance: High Heat Tolerance
  • Water Requirements: Medium Water Use
  • Soil Requirements: Low Soil Requirements
  • Pest Tolerance: Medium Pest Resistance
  • Fertility Requirements: Low Fertility Requirements
Explanation of the Earth–Kind® Index breakdown

Firewise Index

Explanation of the Firewise Index numerical value

USDA Hardiness Zones:

4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Regions that intersect these hardiness zones:
Region A - Panhandle and High Plains Region B - North and Central Texas Region C - Northeast and East Texas Region D - West Texas Region E - Upper Rio Grande Region F - Hill Country and Central Coast Region G - Southeast Texas Region H - Rio Grande Valley
Click image for enlarged map of USDA Hardiness Zones

Additional Comments:

Tough durable perennials to transition season annuals. Some are excellent mat-like groundcovers, but tend to die out in the center, moving away at the edges. Plants tend to "migrate" about the garden.
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A Special Note about Cool Season Annuals

Cool season annuals typically are planted in the fall or early winter and flower in early spring under moderate temperatures. This group of plant materials includes: pansies, snapdragons, violas, dianthus, flowering cabbage/kale, etc. Because cool season annuals flower in the spring when conditions are mild, most have limited heat tolerance.

As a result cool season annuals do not receive a high Earth–Kind® index despite their outstanding landscape qualities.